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cmjv-{So-bw

hmeyw 2 | e|w 4 | tabv 2008


















































LmXI\mb kplmtm

 
(AÌ-cn® CtÌm-t\-jyË GIm-[n--]Xn kplmátXm-hns\ apË\náÃn Hcmtem-N-\)

(H-Ðv)
BapJw

Z¢n-W-]qátê-jym-`q-J-WvU-ÃnsÒ Xoc-{]-tZ-i-amWv CtÌm-t\-jyË Bá®n-s]-em-tKm( Zzo]-k-aq-lw). BsI 13, 700 Zzo]p-I-fpè Cu {]tZ-isà Ggm-bn-c-tÃmfw Zzo]p-I-fnã P\-hm-k-an-æ. cW-ASp eIvj-tÃmfw NXp-c-{i-Intem aoâ-dmWv CXnsÒ hnkvXoáWw. 2002se IW|v {]Imcw P\-kwJy 22-tIm-Sn-tbmfw hcpw. apÐq-dn-e-[nIw hwio-b-hn-`m-K-ª-fp¾v CtÌmt\-jybnã. Ah s]mXp-hnãaqÐv {][m\ hn`m-K-ª-fnãs]-Sp-Ðp. 1. Pmhbnse Acn-bp-ev]m-Z-Icpw Abã{]-tZ-i-ª-fnse apûnw-Ifpw DçsÔ-Sp-ÐXmWv HÐm-asà hn`m-Kw.2. Xoc-tZ-i-ap-ûnw-Ifpw kpam-{X-bnse aem-b-|mcmb-ap-ûnw-I-fmWv c¾mw-hn-`m-K-Ãn-ep-è-Xv. 3. Zmb-|p-Ifpw aâv hwiob hn_m-K-ª-fp-amWv aqÐmw {KqÔn-ep-è-Xv. `mkm CtÌm-t\-jy-bmWv HutZym-Kn-I-`m-j. thsd Ccp-Ðq-â-n-b-ÚXv `mj-Iç IqSn Cu Zzo]-k-aq-l-ª-fnã {]Nm-c-Ãn-ep-¾v. aX-hn-izm-kn-I-fnã F½]Xv iX-am-\-Ãn-e-[nIw apûnw-I-fm-Wv. lnÎp---_p-Ê-a-X-ª-fm-Wv aâp-{]-[m-\-a-X-ªç. alm-`q-cn-]-¢hpw apûnw-I-fm-sW-©nepw lnÎp-a-X-ÃnsÒ kzm[o\w hy]-I-amWv CtÌm-t\-jy-bnã._men-Zzo-]n-emWv Cu kzm[o\w hfsc kv]jvS-ambn ImWm-hp-Ð-Xv. CtÌm-t\-jyË IdËkn cp]y BWv. Fæm CtÌm-t\-jyË t]cp-I-fnepw CÌyËkzm-[o\w kphy-~-am-Wv. kpImátWm FÐmã kpIáWË-F-Ð-XnsÒ Hcp ]mT-t`-Z-am-Wv. ]Çm-h-Xn, e¢van, taLm-hXn FsÐms| CtÌm-t\-jyËap-ûnw-Iç t]cn-Sp-ÐXv ]cn-jvIm-c-am-bn-º-æ, Ah-cpsS kwkvIr-Xn-bpsS Hcp `mK-sa-Ð-\n-e-bn-em-Wv. ]Ãv iX-am\w `qan-am-{X-amWv Irjn-tbm-Ky-am-bn-ºp-è-Xv. Acn-bmWv {][m-\-Imájn-tIm-ev]-Ðw. DjvW-ta-Jem hrjvSn-tZ-i-ª-tfm, A¦n-]áê-X-tZi-ªtfm BWv Zzo]p-I-fnãan-|-h-bpw. No\-bp-ambn HÐmw \qâm-¾vap-Xã hmWn-Py-_-Ï-ap-è-{]-tZ-i-amWv CXv. CÌynã\nÐv tNmf-cm-Pm-|-Ñmcpw aâpw hfsc apÚv XsÐ kpam-{X, {iohn-Pb XpS-ªnb CtÌm-t\-jvbË{]-tZ-i-ªç ssIh-i-sÔ-Sp-Ãn-b-Xn\v Ncn-{X-tc-J-I-fp-¾v. CÌyË I®-h-S-|m-cn-eq-sS-bm-Wt{X CtÌm-t\-jy-bnã-Cûmw {]N-cn-®-Xv. ]Xn-aqÐmw \qâm-¾n-em-Wn-Xm-cw-`n-|p-Ð-Xv. {ItaW Cûmw hy]-I-ambn {]N-cn-|p-Ibpw CtÔmç cmPy-ÃnËsc HutZym-Kn-I-a-X-am-bn-Ão-cp-Ibpw sNb-Xp. temI-Ãnã Gâ-hp-a-[p#nIw apûnw P\-ª-fpè cmPy-amWv CtÌm-t\-jy. c¾mw-öm\w CÌy-|m-Wv. ]Xn-\mdmw \qâm-¾n-emWv bqtdm-]yË A[n-\n-thiw Bcw-`n-|p-Ð-Xv. ]Xn-t\gmw iXIw apXã 1942-hsc U®v B[n-]-Xy-am-bn-cp-Ðp. B hájw PmÔ-\okv B{I-a-W-ap-¾m-bn. 1945ã kpImátWm CtÌm-t\-jy-bpsS kzmX{Ìyw {]Jym-]n-®p.

(c-¾v)
LmX-I-Ñm-cpsS hmgvN

Ncn-{X-Ãnã LmX-I-Ñm-cpsS ]ºn-I-bn-emWv kplmátÃm-hnsÒ öm\w. asâæm LmX-I-Ñm-scbpw t]mse k©p-NnXtZiobXbm-bn-cpÐp Abm-fp-tSbpw Bbp-[w. tkmjy-en-k-tÃm-Spw, sXmgn-em-fn-há£-tÃm-Sp-apè hntcm-[w, \yq\-]-¢-ªçs|-Xn-cmb hymP-{]-Nm-c-th-e, ]ºm-f-i-~n-bnepè Aan-Xamb hnizmkw, ISpà há£o-b-X, hwio-b-hn-Imcw Bfn-|-Ãn-|ã XpSªn temI-sêpw ^mkn-kvcvdp-Iç D]tbm-Kn-|m-dpè Fæm lo\-X-Ifpw LmX-I-Ñm-cnã A[-a-\mb Cu GIm-[n-]-Xnbpw D]-tbm-Kn-®n-ºp-¾v. sXc-s¹-Sp-Ôp-Iç tIhew {]l-k-\-am-|n-am-âp-Ibpw CXp-hgn P\m-[n-]-Xy-saÐ al-\obamb Bi-bsà hnIrX-am-|p-Ibpw sNbvXp, kplmátÃm. Cu lo\-X-Içs|æmw Abmç|v Iqºv \nÐ-Xv, P\m-[n-]-Xy-ÃnsÒ t]cnã hmtXm-cmsX kwkm-cn-|p-Ibpw, apX-e-|-Áo-scm-gp-|p-Ibpw sNàpÐ Ata-cn-|Ë sFIy-\m-Sp-I-fpw.

Ign¹ amkw 27\v ( 2008 P\p-hcn 27-\v) kplmátÃm acn-®tÔmç temI-Ãnse Ip{]-kn-Ê-cmb LmX-I-Ñm-cn-sem-cm-fmWv acn-®-Xv. Bw\kvân CÒá\m-j-\ãap-Xã, temI-Ãnse Gâhpw henb ká®v sajo-\p-Içhsc Cbmsf Gâhpw henb LmX-I-Ñm-cpsS Iqº-Ãn-emWv s]Sp-Ãn-bn-cn-|p-Ð-Xv. lnâve-dp-sS, aptüm-fn-\n-bp-sS, {^mt©m-hn-sÒ, CZn Aao-sÒ, s^áUn-\mÒv amát|m-kn-sÒ, At\Iw Ata-cn-|Ë{]-kn-U¾p-am-cpsS Iqº-Ãnã kplmátÃm-hn\v hen-b-öm\w \evIn-bn-ºp-¾v. ]t¢, CXv, GsX-©nepw krjvSyp-Ñp-J-amb {]háÃ-\-ÃnsÒ t]cn-e-æ, lo\-amb a\p-jy-]m-X-I-ª-fpsS t]cn-em-Wv. Cbmça-cn-®-tÔmç, Atacn| sNbvX-Xv, Cbm-fpsS t]cnã IÁo-scm-gp-|p-I-bmWv. A.-bmç Pohn-®-ncn-|p-tÚm-gm-h-sº, ac-W-a-S-¹-tÔm-gmh-sº, Hcn-|-se-©nepw Abm-fpsS Incm-X-{]-háÃ-\-ªç|v XS-bn-SmË Ata-cn-|Ë`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iç sNdp-hn-c-e-\-|n-bn-æ.

hmjn-MvS½ CtÌm-t\-jy-bnã ^e-{]-Z-ambn CS-s]-ºXv 1998ãam-X-c-am-Wv. AÐm-hsº Ata-cn-|-bpsS {]kn-U¾v _nã¡nÒ½ Bbn-cp-Ðp. ¡nÒ½ kplmátÃm-hn-t\m-Sv t^m½aptJ\ Bh-iy-sÔ-ºXv sF. Fw. F^nsÒ \n_-Ï-\-Iç ]cn-]qáW-ambn \S-Ôm-|-W-sa-Ð-t{X.kplmátÃm FtÔmgpw sNbvXp-sIm-¾n-cp-ÐXv AXm-bn-cp-Ðp. km{am-Py-Xz-Ãn\v hgªn, kzÌw kÚ-Zvhy-h-ösb ]qáW-ambpw km{am-Pym-\p-Iq-ehpw kzIm-cy-aq-e-[-\-ÃnsÒ Zmky-th-e-sN-àp-Ð-Xp-am-|n-Ãoá|p-I-bm-bn-cp-Ðp.s]mXp-ta-Jem öm]-\-ª-sfæmw kzIm-cy-h-XvI-cn-|p-I-bm-bn-cp-Ðp. kpImátWm-hnsÒ Imesà \mam{X-amb kmaq-ly-\o-Xn-t]mepwAbmç Cæm-bva-sN-bvXp. AtÔmgpw Ah-km-\-Im-e-Ãp-t]m-epw, kplmátÃm-hnsÒ ]X\w Bk-Ð-am-sWÐv bp. Fkv. Nmc-h-e-b-Ãn\v ]qáW-amb Adn-hp-¾m-bn-cpÐ Ime-Ãp-t]mepw, a\p-jym-h-Im-i-ªç Nhn-ºn-sa-Xn-|pÐ \b-ªçXn-cp-Ã-W-saÐv Hcp ]mëmXy i~nbpw kplmátÃm-hn-t\mSv Bh-iy-sÔ-ºn-æ. X\n-|m-hp-Ðn-S-tÃmfw Abmç CtÌmt\-jyËP-\-Xsb \in-Ôn-®p. 1965se Iqº-s|m-e-I-fn-epw, 1969ã ]ën-a-]m#p-]mh ]nSn-®-S-|p-Ð-Xnepw 1975ã In|ËXn-tam-dns\ B{I-an-|p-Ð-Xnepw 1983--84se Zpcq-l-sIm-e-]m-X-I-ª-fp-saæmw Ata-cn-|Ë`-c-W-Iq-Shpw temI-km-{am-Py-i-~n-Ifpw kplmátÃm-hn-t\m-sSmÔw \nÐp. AtÔm-sgms| kzmX{Ìy{]-Jym-]-\-tc-J-bn-eqsS öm]n-X-amb Ata-cn-|ËP-\m-[n-]Xyw Abm-fpsS CjvS-tXm-g\pw kplr-Ãp-ambn \ne-sIm-¾p.

FtÌ CXn\v ImcWw? kplmátÃm-hn-s\-tÔm-epè Hcp LmX-IsÒ Pohn-X-Ãnse \mçh-cn-IçsIm¾v aeo-a-k-am-|m-\p-è-X-æ, sXmgn-em-fn-há£-]{XÃnsÒ Ate-J-Iç. FMn-Inepw Cua-\p-jym[-[-asÒ lo\-X-bpsS Bghpw ]cÔpw Adn-bp-Ð-Xn\v Abm-fpsS Pohn-X-Ãn-eqsS HÐv ItÁm-Sn-t|-¾-Xp-¾v. GIm-[n-]-Xn-Iç Fªs\ D¾m-hp-Ðp-sh-Ðv, km{am-PyXzw AXns\ Fªs\ klm-bn-|p-Ðp-shÐv a\-ün-em-|p-Ð-Xn\v CXm-h-iy-am-Wv.

(aq-Ðv)
bpÊm-h-ö-bpsS kuIcyw

aÊy-Pm-h-bnse Hcp {Kma-Ãnã 1921 Pq½ 8\mWv kplmátÃm P\n-|p-Ð-Xv. P\\w Iáj-I-Ip-Spw-_-Ãn-em-bn-cp-Ðp-sh-©nepw Xmc-X-tay\ \æ-hn-Zym-`ym-k-amWv Abmç|v e`n-®-Xv. FÐmã Abm-fpsS Ipºn-|mew Zpcq-lhpw sshj-ay-ªç \n-d-¹-Xp-am-bn-cp-Ðp-sh-Ðv , hnh-c-W-ªç ImWn-|p-Ðp. AÛ-bpsS t]cv kpIn-tc, A°Ë sIátXm kp[o-tcm. Ahá ]nW-ªn-Ôn-cn-¹n-cp-Ðp-shÐv Nne-hn-h-c-W-ªç ]d-bp-tÚmç kpIn-tcm-hnã kp[o-tcm-hn-\p-¾mb Ahn-ln-X-k-Ìm-\-amWv kplmátÃm-shÐv aâp-Nn-e-hn-h-c-W-ªç ]d-bp-Ðp.XÌ-bn-æm-Ã-h-s\Ðv ImWn-|m-s\m-Ðp-am-bn-cp-Ðn-æ, AXv. cmjv{So-b-Ãnã Hºpw Xmev]-cy-an-æm-sX-bmWv kplmátÃm hfáÐp-h-Ð-Xv. tImf-Wn-hn-cp-Ê-k-a-c-Ãn-tem, tZio-b-hn-tam-N-\-Ãntem sXæp Xmev]cyw {]InSnÔn®ncp-Ðn-æ, kplmátÃm. ka-Im-en-I-\mb kpImátWm-hm-I-tº, sNdp-Ô-Ãnte tZio-bt_m[-Ãmã Bth-i-`-cn-X-\m-bn-cp-Ðp. kplmátÃm-hn\v U®v XpS-ªnb tImfWn ta[m-hn-I-fpsS `mjbpw Adn-bn-æm-bn-cp-Ðp. 1940ã U®vssk\y-Ãnã( tdmbã s\XáemÒvkv CukvânÌokvBáan) tNáÐ-Xns\ XpSáÐv kplmátÃm U®v `mj ]Tn-®p. Ipd®v Imew Hcp _m©nã tPmen sNbvX-Xn\v tij-amWv Abmç ssk\y-Ãnã tNáÐ-Xv. c¾mw temI-a-lm-bp-Ê-ÃnsÒ ^e-ambn IqSp-Xãssk-\n-Itc Bh-iy-ambn hÐ ]ëm-Ã-e-Ãn-ã kplmátÃm-hn\v ssk\y-Ãnã Db-cmË km[n-®p. U®v ssk\n-I-hn-Zym-`ymkw t\Sm\pw s\XáemÒkv A[n-Im-cn-Isf {]oW-nÔn-|m\pw Abmç|v Ign-¹p. CtÌm-t\-jy-s|-Xn-cmbn PmÔ-\okv `ojWn \ne-\n-Ðn-cp-Ð-Xn-\mã ]c-am-h[n tZio-b.-bu-h-\sà km{am-Pym-[n-]Xyw \ne-\náÃp-Ð-Xn\v th¾n D]-tbm-Kn-|p-I-sbÐ U®v \bÃnsÒ KpW-^-e-ªç Adn-bmsX kplmátÃm-hns\ hmásÃ-Sp-|p-I-bm-bn-cp-Ðp. {ItaW Abmç ssk\y-Ãn-ep-báÐp hÐp. kzÌ-amb GsX©nepw {]Xn-`-bpsS ^esamÐp-am- bn-cp-Ðn-æ, bpÊm-h-ö-bpsS kuIcyw am{X-am-bn-cp-ÐpkplmátÃm-hns\ hmásÃ-Sp-Ã-Xv. U®v ssk\y-Ãnã kmáPÒm-bn-cpÐ kplmátÃm, U®v ssk\yw ]cm-P-b-sÔ-º-Xns\ XpSáÐv PmÔ-\okv ]¢Ãv tNcp-I-bpw, PmÔv t]meo-knsÒ CÒ-en-PËkv hn`m-K-Ãnã tPmen t\Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]nÐo-S-bmç Pm-Ô-\p-Iqe anen-jy-bnã tNáÐp-{]-háÃn-®p. CtÌm-t\-jyËbp-hm-|fnã U®v hncp-Ê-tZ-io-b-hn-Imcw krjvSn-|p-Ð-Xn-\mWv Cu anenjy {]m[m-\yw-\-evIn-bn-cp-Ð-Xv. Cu U®v hncp-Ê-tZ-io-b-hn-Imcw PmÔ-\p-Iq-e-am-bn-cn-|mË Ahá{]-tXyIw {iÊn-®n-cp-Ðp. Cu ]cn-io-e-\-Ãnã\n-ÐmWv tZio-b-ssk-\n-I-{]Xy-imkv{Xw kplmátÃm-hnã cq]-sÔSp-Ð-sXÐv Abm-fpsS Poh-N-cn-{X-c-N-bn-Xm-|ç A`n-{]m-b-sÔ-Sp-Ðp-. ISp-Ã-]-cn-io-e-\-Ãn-eqsS hfsc ISpà ssk\n-I-a-t\m-`mhw bphm-|-fnã hfáÃn-sb-Sp-|mË PmÔv ]cn-io-e-Iá|v Ign-¹p. kplmátÃm Ah-cpsS Hcp hmáÔv amXr-I-bm-bn-cp-Ðp, Nncn-®p-sIm¾v sImæpÐ amXr-I.

c¾mw temI-a-lm-bp-ÊÃnã PÔmË ]cm-P-b-sÔ-ºp. CXv tZio-b-hm-Zn-Iç|v A\p-Iq-e-amb Ah-kcw {]Zm\w sNbvXp. tZio-b-hn-tam-N-\-Ãn\v th¾n U®p-Imá|pw ]nÐoSv PmÔv ta[m-hn-XzÃn\pw FXnsc t]mcm-Snb kpImátWm-hn\pw apl-ÛZv lÃbv|pw \sæm-c-h-k-c-am-bn-cpÐp CXv. Ahá CtÌm-t\-jy-bpsS ]qáW-kzm-X{Ìyw {]Jym-]n-®p. CtÌm-t\-jyË tZio-b-hn-Õhw Bcw-`n-®-Xmbn AháAdnbn-®p. kpImátWm-hnsÒ ]³-io-e-X-Ãz-ª-fn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb Hcp CtÌm-t\-jyÒdn-]-Ùn|v cq]o-Ir-X-am-bn. tZio-ssbIyw, kzX-{Ì-]-c-am-[n-Im-c-dn-]-Ùn|pI-fpsS kap-®-b-Ãnã HÐv FÐhnizm-k-Ãn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb kmáh-tZ-io-b-t_m-[w, {]mXn-\n[y P\m-[n-]-Xyw, kmaq-ln-I-\o-Xn( amáIvkn-k-ÃnsÒ kzm[o-\-am-Wn-hnsS ImWp-Ð-Xv), skIyq-e-dn-kÃne-[n-jvTn-X-amb BkvXn-IX-F-Ðn-h-bm-bn-cpÐp ]³-io-e-X-Ãz-ªç. ]t¢, kzX{Ì CtÌmt\-jysb temIw AwKo-I-cn-|p-Ð-Xn\v ssk\n-I-\-S-]Sn Bh-iy-ambn hÐp. Chn-sSbpw Ah-kcw kplmátÃm-hns\ tXSn-sb-Ãp-I-bmbn-cp-Ðp. ssk\n-I-Ip-X-{Ì-ª-fnã ]cn-io-e\w t\Sn-bn-cpÐ kplmátÃm Cu Ah-kcw icn|pw apX-em-|n. PmÔv ssk\ysà XpS®p \o|p-Ð-Xn\pw kwLáj-Ãn-\n-S-bnã Zzo]-k-aq-l-Ãnse Ah-ti-jn® kzÃv ssIh-i-sÔ-Sp-Ãm-\pè U®v {ia-ª-tf ]cm-P-b-sÔ-SpÃp-Ð-Xn\pw tZio-b-{]-öm-\-ÃnsÒ klmb-tÃmsS ssk\y-Ãn\v Ign-¹p. CXnã ]s©-Sp-Ã-Xn-\mã, CtÌm-t\-jyË hnÕ-h-ssk-\yÃnã (People’s Security Body (BKR)) Daák-em-a-ÃnsÒ sU]yq-ºn-bmbn kplmátÃm-hn\v \nb-a\w e`n-®p. inYn-e-amb tZio-b-ssk-\n-I-L-S-I-ªsf kwtbm-Pn-Ôn-|p-Ð-Xn\v, CXn-\Iw X\n|v e`n® ssk\n-Im-\p-`-h-ªç {]tbm-P-\-sÔ-Sp-ÃmË kplmá-tXm-hn\v Ign-¹p. Cu tkh-\-ªç ]cn-K-Wn®v Abmsf ]Ãmw _âm-en-bsÒ taP-dmbn öm\-|-bâw \evIn \nb-an-®p.

FÐmã c¾mw temI-a-_-lm-bp-Ê-Ãn\v tij-ap-¾mb kw`-h-ªç A{]-Xo-¢n-X-am-bn-cp-Ðp. ]gb önXn-K-Xn-I-fn-te|v temIw Xncn-®p-t]m-h-W-saÐ \nëbw (status quo ante bellum) U®p-ImáZp-cp-]-tbm-Kv]-s]-Sp-ÃmË{i-an-®p. CtÌm-t\jy ho¾pw U®v hcp-Xn-bn-em-|m-\pè {ia-Ãn-s\-Xnsc tZio-b-{]-öm\w i~-amb \ne-]m-sS-Sp-Ãp. CXv U®v ssk\yhpw CtÌmt\-jyËssk-\y-hp-am-bpè Gâp-ap-º-en-seÃp-Ibpw Cu Gâp-ap-º-enã kplmátÃm-hn\v henb Ah-k-c-ªç e`n-|p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1946 sabv 17\v \SÐ henb Hcp U®v aptÐ-âsÃXS-bmË kplmátXm-hn\v Ign-¹p; CXv hgn kzÌw ssk\ym-[n-]-\mb kp\mátXm Ipkp-tam-ZnátPm-hnsÒ {]oXn t\Sn-sb-Sp-Ãp. kp\mátXm AbmsftZiobssk\n-I-L-S-\-bpsS cq]-tc-J-Iç Fgp-Xn-bp-¾m-|mËNp-a-X-e-sÔ-Sp-Ãn.Ah-k-c-ªçap-X-se-Sp-|m-\pè kplmátÃm-hnsÒ {ia-ªçXp-SáÐp. Cu Lº-Ãnã AhoË Iè-|-S-Ãp-Im-cp-ambn kplmátÃm _Ï-sÔ-ºn-cp-Ð-Xmbn Nne-hn-h-c-W-ªç ]d-bpÐp¾v.

1947ã CtÌm-t\jy ]nSn-®-S-|p-Ð-Xn\v U®p-Imá ho¾pw {ian-®p. 1948ã CtÌm-t\-jyËssk\yw kÚqáWambn ]cm-P-b-sÔ-Sp-Ibpw tZiob t\Xm-|-fmb kpImátWmhpw lÃbpw aâpw U®p-Im-cpsS XS-hn-em-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. XpSáÐv \SÐ sKmcn-æm-bp-Ê-ap-d-Iç Hc-f-thmfw CtÌm-t\-jyË BÇ-hn-izmkw hfáÃp-Ð-Xn\v klm-b-I-am-bn. tZiob t\Xr-Xz-ÃnsÒ \náWm-b-I-amb ]nÌp-W-bnæmsX sKmdnæm kacw \S-|p-I-bn-æm-bn-cp-Ðp. CXv P\-ª-fnã U®v hncp-Ê-{]-Xn-tcm-[-Ãn-\pè Bthiw krjvSn-®p.Hmtcm \S-]-Snbpw XsÒ bi-üp-báÃp-hm-\pè D]m-[n-bm-|p-Ð-Xnã kplmátÃm-hn-P-bn-®p. sFIycm-jv{S-k-`-C-S-s]-º-Xns\ XpSáÐv U®p-Imákw-`m-j-W-Ãn\v kÐ-Ê-am-hp-Ibpw kw`m-j-W-ªã Bcw-`n-|p-Ibpw sNbvX-tXmsS kplmátÃm kam-[m--\-kw-`m-j-W-ª-fnã Xmev]-cy-sa-Sp-|mË XpS-ªn. ]t¢ ,kp-lmátÃm-hnsÒ a\-ün-en-cn-Ô-\p-k-cn-®pè Xocp-am-\-aæ kam-[m-\kw`m-jW-ÃnsÒ ^e-am-bp-¾m-b-Xv.

(\m-ev)
kzX-{Ì-C-tÌm-t\jy

GXm-bmepw 1950apXã kp|mátWmhnsÒ Iognã tkh\w \S-ÃmË kplmátÃm Xocp-am-\n-®p. kpImátWm-hnsÒ `c-Wsà Fæm CtÌm-t\-jyË P\-hn-`m-K-ªfpw AwKo-I-cn-®n-cp-Ðn-æ. hnhn[ tZio-b-X-Ifpw P\-hn-`m-K-ªfpw CS-I-eáÐ CtÌm-t\-jy-bnã GsX-©n-ep-samcp tZio-b-hn-`m-K-Ãnãs]º Hcp t\-Xm-hn\v AwKo-Imcw e`n|pI Ffp-Ô-a-æ. At\Iw Iem-]-ª-fp-¾m-bn. tIWã B¾n Akokv FÐ ssk\n-IsÒ t\Xr-Xz-Ãnã\-SÐ Iem]w hfsc i~-am-bn-cp-Ðp. Cu Iem]w ASn-®-aá-Ãp-Ð-Xn\v \ntbm-Kn-|s]º kplmátÃm ]nÐoSv XsÒ hnizkvXm-\p-bm-bn-bmbn amdnb _n. sP.l_o-_n-bp-ambn ]cn-N-b-sÔ-ºp. l_o_n kplmátÃm-hnsÒ Iognã sshkv {]kn-U¾pw kplmátÃm-hnsÒ ]X-\-Ãn\v tijw {]kn-U-¾p-ambn-cp-Ðn-ºp-¾v. aâp-I-em-]-ªsf t\cn-Sm\pw kplmátÃm \ntbm-Kn-|-sÔ-ºp. 1954\pw 1959\pw CS-bnã {_ntK-Un-báP-\-dã kplmátÃm cmPysà Gâhpw {][m-\-ssk-\n-I-hn-`m-K-amb Zot]m-\n-tKtdm Ia#ÒnsÒ Xe-h-\mbn háÃn-®p. aÊy-Pm-h-, tbmKy-IáÃm {]hn-ky-I-fpsS Npa-X-e-bmWv Cu ssk\n-I-hn-`m-K-Ãn-\p-¾m-bn-cp-Ð-Xv. Cu ImeÃv Abmça-Êy-Pm-h-bnse {]apJ hmWn-Py-Ip-Spw-_-ª-fmb eow kntbm entbm-ªv, t_mhv lkË XpS-ªnbhbp-ambn ]cn-Nbw t\Sp-Ibpw A\-h[n hmWn-Py-kw-cw-`-ª-fnã ]©m-fn-bm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1959ã kplmátÃm-hnsÒ t]cnã Iè-|-SÃp Ipâw Btcm-]n-|-sÔ-ºp. FÐmã P\-dã kp{_tXm FÐ káêkssk\ym-[n-]Ë kplmátÃm-hnsÒ c¢-bvs|-Ãn. Abmsf ]ºm-f-t|m-S-Xn-bp-sS hnNm-c-Wbv|v hnt[-b-am-|p-Ð-Xn\v ]Icw ]Sn-¹m-dË Pmh-bnse _mÎq-ªn-epèssk\nIhnZym-`ymk öm]-\-Ãn-te|v öew amân. Fæm GIm-[n-]-Xn-I-tfbpw t]mse Abmfpw Ipâ-Ir-Xy-ª-fn-teásÔ-Sp-Ibpw in¢I-fnã\nÐv c¢-sÔ-Sp-I-bp-am-bn-cp-Ðp.

1962ã Cbmç|v ta-PáP-\-d-embn öm\-|-bâw Inºn. XpSáÐv Abmç kp{]-[m-\-amb amÒem IamÒnsÒ A[n-]-Xn-bm-bn. Fæm ssk\n-I-hn-`m-K-ª-fpsSbpw( Báan, \mhn, Fbát^m-gvkv) kwbp-~-amb Böm-\-am-bn-cpÐp Cbm-fpsS hcp-Xn-bn-em-b-Xv. Cu A[n-Im-c-tÃmsS s\XáemÒvknsÒ ssIh-i-am-bn-cpÐ s\XáemÒvkv \yqKn-\n-b-bn-te|v (]m-Ôp-hm-{]-tZ-iw)Cu ssk\n-I-hn-`mKw B{I-aWw kwL-Sn-Ôn-®p. Cu {]tZiw kzmX-{Ìy-w{]-Jym-]n-|p-Ibpw kzÌ-amb ]Xm-I-]-d-Ôn-|p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xn-\pè in¢-bm-bn-cpÐp CXv. CXn\v Ata-cn-|Ë klm-bhpw e`n-®p. CtÌmt\jy tkmhn-bâv ]mf-b-Ãn-te|v t]mhm-Xn-cn-|p-Ð-Xn-\pè apË Icp-X-seÐ \ne-bn-emWv AtW-cn| CtÌm-t\-jysb klm-bn-®-Xv. Ata-cn-|bpsS \b-X{Ì CS-s]-S-ep-I-fpsS ^e-ambn s\XáemÒvkv \yq Kn\nb CtÌm-t\-jyp-ambn tNá|-s]-ºp. Cu hnP-b-tÃmsS kplmátÃm aáa-{]-[m-\-amb tImkv{Sm-UnsÒ Xe-h-\mbn \nb-an-X-\m-bn. P|máà Böm-\-amb Hcp ssk\n-I-hn-`m-K-am-bn-cpÐp CXv.

(A-³v)
ssk\y-Ãnse hnè-ep-Iç

CXn-\n-S-bnã CtÌm-t\-jyË ssk\y-Ãnã hnè-ep-I-fp-¾m-bn. ssk\yw CS-Xp-]-¢-ambpw he-Xp-]-¢-ambpw thá]n-cn-¹p. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw kplmátÃm he-Xp-]¢ IymÚn-em-bn-cp-Ðp.cmPyw Iayq-Wn-kvâp-Im-cpsS hcp-Xn-bn-em-hp-Ðp-s#-shÐ Btcm-]Ww hym]-I-ambn hcn-I-bm-bn-cp-Ðp. cmPy-ÃnsÒ hnhn-[-`m-K-ª-
fnã\-S-|pÐ B{I-a-W-ªçImc-Ww, ZrV-amb Xocp-am-\-ª-sf-Sp-|mË kpImátWm-t{]-cn-X-\m-bn . am{X-a-æ, CXn-\n-S-bnã ]mëm-Xy-\-b-X-{Ì-²cpw amÊy-a-ªfpw kp|mátWm-hns\ GIm-[n-]-Xn-bmbn hnti-jn-Ôn-|mË XpS-ªn-bn-cp-Ðp. 1962 Pqem-bnã CtÌm-t\-jyË ]máse-saÒmb aP-enko cJymYv kpImátWm-hns\ BPo-h-\mÌ {]kn-U-¾mbn {]Jym-]n-®p. {_nºojv ]nÌp-W-tbmsS CtÌm-t\-jyË Xmev]-cy-ªçs|-Xn-cmb ate-jyË s^U-td-j-\p-¾m-|m-\pè \o|sà kp|mátWm {]Xn-tcm-[n-®p. Ata-cn-|-bpçsÔsS ]mëm-Xy-i-~n-Iç XsÒ ]cn-jvImc \S-]-Sn-Içs|-Xn-cmbn \oªp-I-bm-sWÐv a\-ün-em|nb kpImátWm kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw CS-Xp-]¢ hn`m-K-ª-fpsS ]nÌp-W-t\-Sp-Ð-Xn-\pè \S-]-Sn-Iç kzoI-cn-®p. ]³-io-e-ª-fnse kmaq-lnI \oXn \S-Ôm-|p-Ð-Xn-\pè Nne-\-S-]-Sn-Iç ssIs|m-èmË XpS-ªn. CXv Iayq-W-nkvâv ]¢ ]mX-ambn Btcm-]n-|-sÔ-ºp. kmam\yw henb Hcp Iayq-Wnkvâv ]máºn-bmWv CtÌm-t\-jy-bn-ep-¾m-bn-cp-Ð-Xv. Cu Lº-Ãn-emWv 1965 k]vXw-_á 30\v Bdv he-Xp-]¢ ssk\n-Iá h[n-|-sÔ-º-Xv. Ing-|Ë P|máÃ-bnse ep_mMv _phmb FÐ {]tZ-i-ÃmWv Cu sIme \S-Ð-Xv. CXv Iayq-W-nkvâvv KqVm-tem-N-\-bpsS ^e-am-sWÐpw Iayq-W-C-kvâp-Imsc sh®p-s]m-dp-Ôn-|-cp-sXÐpw Bt{Im-in-|-sÔ-ºp.

(B-dv)
a\pjy-|p-cpXn

]nÐoSv kplmátÃm-hnsÒ Dug-am-bn-cp-Ðp. Abmç ssk\n-Isc Iayq-Wnkvâv ]máºn {]háÃ-Iá|pw A\p-`m-hn-Iç|pw FXnsc thº \mbv|sf tÔmse Agn®p hnºp. Iayq-Wn-kvâp-Imsc sImæmË Xàmdpè Fæm kwL-ªã|pw Fæm hn[-t{]m-Èm-l-\-ªfpw ssk\y-ÃnsÒ `mK-Ãp-\nÐv Inºn. kpam-{X, _men, Ing-|Ë Pmh FÐn-hn-S-ª-fnã tI{Îo-I-cn-®mWv Iqº-s|m-e-\-S-Ð-Xv. Iayq-W-C-kvâp-Isf IimÔv sNà-\-bmã apûnw-I-tfm-Sm-lzm\w sNbvXp. _men-bnse lnÎp-|-sfbpw Abmã B{I-a-tWm-Èp-I-cm-|n. 1966-B-b-tÔm-tg|v A³v e¢w CtÌm-t\-jyË a\p-jyá sImebv|n-c-bm-sbÐv IW-|m-|-sÔ-Sp-Ðp. Ata-cn-|Ë Nmc-kw-L-S-\bpw temIsà Gâhpw henb Iayq-W-nkvâv hncp-Ê-{]-háÃ-\-ª-fpsS Bkq-{X-I-cp-amb kn. sF. F.. ]d-bp-ÐXv Ccp-]Xmw \qâm¾-¾nse Gâhpw lo\-amb a\p-jy-|-im-Ôp-I-fn-sem-Ðm-Wn-sX-Ðm-Wv. 1990ã Ata-cn-|Ë \b-X-{Ì-²áC{X-IqSn {]Jym-]n-®p, Xªç Aàm-bn-c-Ãn-e-[nIw Iayq-Wnkvâv ]máºn-{]-háÃ-I-cpsS ]ºnI Iayq-Wnkvâv hncpÊ Iem-]-Im-cn-Iç|v \evIn-bn-cp-Ðp. P|máÃn-bnse Ata-cn-|Ë Fw_-ün-bnã DtZym-K-ö-\mbncpÐ tdm-_áºv amáºn-\mWv C|mcyw temIsà Adn-bn-®-Xv.

icn-bmWv hmb-\-|m-cpsS A\pam-\-ªç icn-bm-Wv. Ata-cn-|-X-sÐ-bm-bn-cpÐp Cu B{I-a-W-ªç|v ]nd-In-epw. Hm, Cu sIme-I-sfms| Bcv {iÊn-|m-\m-Wv, sImæ-sÔ-Sp-ÐXv Iayq-Wn-kvâp-I-fm-hp-tÚmç FÐv [áÛ-tcm-j-Ãnã BtÇm-]-lmkw sImèp-I-b-æ, Cu teJ-IË. 1965ã Ata-cn-|Ë tkvââv UnÔmáºvsaÒnsÒ CÒ-en-PËkv hn`m-K-Ãnse CtÌm-t\-jyË hn`m-K-ÃnsÒ Xe-h-\m-bn-cpÐ tlmhmUv s^s¾-kv]n-bã ]d-bp-Ð-Xm-Wn-Xv. “IimÔv sNà-sÔ-Sp-ÐXv Iayq-W-nkvâp-Im-cm-bn-cn-|p-thmfw Bcpw HÐpw {iÊn-®n-æ.Bá|pw Hcp thh-em-Xn-bp-ap-¾m-bn-c-p-Ðn-æ.“

kplmátÃm-hm-WnXvkwL-Sn-Ôn-®p-sIm-Sp-Ã-sXÐv hniz-kn-|m-s\m-cp-]mSv Imc-W-ª-fps¾Ðv ]Xn-âm-¾p-Iç|v tijw Atacn-|Ë t\Xm-|çXsÐ ]d-bp-Ðp.GXm-bmepw XsÒ \ne-bp-d-Ôn-|p-Ð-Xn-t\z¾n Cu Ah-kcw Abmç]qáW-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-®p.1966amá®v11\v Abmç \nb-a-k-am-[m\w öm]n-|m-\pè DÃ-c-hm-ZnÃw XsÐ Gev]n-®p-sIm-¾pè DÃ-chv ssI|-em-|p-Ðp.Cu DÃ-c-hm-ZnÃw e`n-®-tXmsS Abmç Iayq-Wnkvâv ]máºn|v \ntcm-[-\-taásÔ-Sp-Ãn. kpImátWmhnt\mSv hniz-kvXX ]peáXÃn-bn-cpÐ At\Iw DtZym-K-ösc XS-hn-em-|n. Iayq-W-n-kvâ-\p-`mhw Btcm-]n®m-bn-cpÐp Ad-kvâv. CXp-hgn kpImátWm-hnsÒ A[n-Im-c-ªç Ipd-®p-sIm-¾p-h-cn-Ibpw kplmátXm-hnsÒ e¢y-am-bn-cp-Ðp.

Iayq-Wn-kvâvv]máºn-s|-Xn-cmb \S-]-Sn-sb-Ð-t]-cnã 1965-/66ã CtÌm-t\-jy-bnã\-SÐ a\p-jy-|-imÔnã A³v e¢Ãn-e-[nIw Bfp-Iç sIme-sN-à-sÔ-ºp. \ncm-bp-[cpw \nü-lm-b-cp-amb P\-ªçs|-Xnsc \S-Ãnb BI-kvan-I-amb IS-Ðm-{I-a-W-am-bn-cpÐp AXv. kv{XoIfpw Ip¹p-ª-fp-saæmw sIme-sN-à-sÔ-ºp. P\-ªç|v kzm`m-hn-I-amb coXn-bnãt]mepw {]Xn-tcm-[n-|mË Ign-¹n-æ.t]mçt]m-ºnsÒ Iim-Ôp-I-tfm, {^³v lyqKp-t\m-ºp-Iç( {^mËkn-se s{]mº-kvâmÒv ss{IkvX-h-hn-`m-K-|má)s|-Xnsc ]Xn-\mdmw \qâm-¾nã\-SÐ Ipcp-Xn-Itfm GXmWv C{X-sbms| {Iqc-am-bn-cp-ÐXv FÐt\z-jn-|mË Ign-bm-X-hÁw lo\hpw Zbm-c-ln-X-hp-am-bn-cpÐp AXv. lnâvvetdm aptüm-fn-\ntbm kplmátÃmthm BcmWv tIaË-FtÐ At\z-jn-t|-¾-Xp-èq. Iayq-W-nkvâv ]máºn-s|-Xn-cmb \S-]Sn ]nÐo-Sv No\-|má|pw Ing|ËXn-tam-dnse {InkvXym-\n-Iç|pw _men-bnse lnÎp-|ç|pw Fæmw FXn-cmbn kplmátXm {]tbm-Kn-®p. sImæmËX-àm-dpè Fæm-h-tcbpw t{]mÈm-ln-Ôn-®p-sh-Ð-XmWv kplmátXm-hnsÒ khn-ti-j-X. aâp a\p-jy|p-cp-Xn-Iç]-cn-io-e\w knÊn® sIme-bm-fn-Iç\-S-Ãn-b-Xm-bn-cn-|mt\ \náhm-l-ap-èq. Ign-bn-æ, Bá|p-an-Xn-s\m-cp-Ãcw Is¾-ÃmË Ign-bn-æ.FÌnt\ A³m-dp-e¢w a\p-jysc Cªs\ sImÐp? kam-[m-\-an-æmà tNmZy-am-Wn-Xv.

(G-gv)
Ipcp-Xn|v tijw

]nÐoSv \S-sÐ-sXæmw Ncn-{X-ÃnsÒ `mK-am-Wv. 1967amá®v 12\v kp-ImátWm-hnsÒ {]kn-U¾v ]Zhn FSp-Ãp-I-f-¹p. 1970ã 69#m-asà hb-üne acn-|p-Ð-Xp-hsc kpImátWm hoºp-X-S-©-en-em-bn-cpÐp.

1969ã kplmátXm Hu]-Nm-cn-I-ambn {]kn-U¾v ]Zhn Gsâ-Sp-Ãp. 1998 hsc Ggv XhW Abmç{]-kn-U¾v ]Z-hn-bnãkzbw Ah-tcm-[n-®p, apÔ-Ãn-b³v sImæ-|m-ew. HmtcmZnh-khpw Abmç P\-Io-bm-h-Im-i-ªç IhásÐ-Sp-Ãp-sIm-¾pè ]pXnb DÃ-c-hp-I-fp-ambn cwKÃp hÐp. 1970ãhn-ZymáÄn-{]-öm\w \ntcm-[n-|-sÔ-ºp.1971 apXã CtÌm-t\-jybnse cmjv{So-b-]máºn-Isf Npcp-|n-sIm-¾p-h-cm-\mbn Abm-fpsS {iaw. 1973 Bb-tÔmçXsÒ tKm|á ]máºn,bpss\-âUv Uh-e-]vsaÒv ]máºn, CtÌm-t\-jyË sUtam-{Im-ân|v ]máºn FÐo aqÐv ]máºn-Iç|v am{X-ambn {]háÃ-\-kzm-X{Ìyw ]cn-an-X-sÔ-SpÃn.]máe-saÒw-K-ª-fnã 20 iX-am-\sà kplmátÃm t\cnºv \nb-an-|pÐ \nb-a-ap-¾m-bn.1975ã Ing-|ËXn-tam-dnã Iqº-s|m-e-\-S-Ãn. `cWw ISpà Agn-a-Xn-bpsS IqÃ-c-ªm-bn-am-dn.

FÌmWv kplm-á-tÃm-hnsÒ t\ºw? Abmç ]mëm-Xy-i-~n-I-fpsS ]tcm-¢-amb ASn-aÃw kzoI-cn-®p; No\-bp-ambpw tkmjy-enkvâv i~n-I-fp-am-bpè Fæm _Ï-ªfpw hntO-Zn-®p. XsÒ hntZ-i-Im-cy-a-{Ìn-bmb BZw amen-|ns\ Abmã A-ta-cn-|-bn-te-|pw, sFIy-cm-jv{S-k-`-bn-te|pw, ate-jy-bn-te|pw Abmç ]d-¹-b-®p-sIm-¾n-cp-Ðp, tkmjy-en-kvâvtem-I-hp-ambn _Ïw apdn-®-Xn\v {]Xn-^ew tNmZn-|m-\pw, Bkn-bmË FÐ ssk\n-I-k-Jy-ap-¾m-|m-\pw. icm-i-cn-bnã Ihn¹ Ign-hp-I-fpè BZw amen|v a\-tüm-sS-bm-hptam Cu Imcy-ªçsN-bvXn-cn-|p-I-sb-Ð-dn-bn-æ.


(G-gv)
]X\w

1990-I-fnã {]Xn-tj[w ho¾pw Db-cmËXp-S-ªn. 1991ã 271 \ncm-bp-[-cmb Ing-|ËXn-aq-dp-Imsc ]ºmfw AIm-c-W-ambn shSn-sh-®p-sIm-ÐXv temI-hym-]-I-amb {]Xn-tj-[-Ãn-\n-S-bm-|n. 1998ã Iem-]-ªã Bfn-Ô-SáÐp. 1999ã ]{X-ªç kplmátÃm IpSpw-_-ÃnsÒ kzÃv 1500 tImSn tUmf-dm-sWÐ háÃ-am\w temI-tÃmSv ]d-¹p. cW-A-Sm-bn-cm-am-¾nã kplmátXm Agn-aXn|pâ-Ãn\vhoºp-X-S-ª-en-em-bn. ]t¢, Abmsf hnNmc-W-sN-àm-\m-bn-æ. Abm-fpsS c¢bv|v tUmIvSáam-sc-Ãn. Abmçam-\-kn-I-ambpw imco-cn-I-ambpw XIáÐn-cn|pIbm-sWÐpw hnNm-cW Akm-Êy-am-saÐpw Aháhn-[n-sb-gp-Xn. Nnen-bË GIm-[n-]Xn ]nt\m-s®âpw Cª-s\-bmWv hnNm-c-W-bnã\nÐv c¢-sÔ-º-sX-tÐmá|p-I. c¾m-bncmam¾v apXã kp]-lmátXm FÐ GIm-[n-]-Xn-bpsS XmgvN-bpsS háj-ª-fm-bn-cp-Ðp. Abm-fpsS IpSpw-_mw-K-ª-tfm-tcm-cp-Ã-cmbn Agn-a-Xn|pw Ihá®bv|pw XS-hn-em-bn. HSp-hnã 2008 P\p-hcn 27\v Abmça-c-W-Ãn\v Iog-S-ªn. Fæm GIm-[n-]-Xn-I-tfbpw t]mse Abmfpw Gâhpw Ah-tl-fn-X-\m-bmWv acn-®-Xv. Ata-cn|-sbm-gnsI A[n-I-cm-Py-ª-sfmÐpw Abm-fpsS Nc-a-ÃnãZp:Jw {]I-Sn-Ôn-®n-æ. eqbn ]Xn-\m-em-a-s\-Ôân ]d-bm-dp-¾v, Abmç Bcpw IÁoáXq-hm-\n-æm-sX,hnem-]-Km-\-ª-fm-e-]n-|m-\n-æmsX ac-W-a-S-¹p-sh-Ðv, Abm-fpsS ac-W-Ãnã Bÿm-Zn®vP\-ªç XsháW-I-fnã ( aZy-im-e) t]mbn IpSn-®p-Iq-Ãm-Sn-sb-Ðv. AXm-W-n-hn-sSbpw kw`-hn-|p-Ð-Xv. \mw IqSp-Xã ]cn-jvIr-X-cm-b-Xn-\mã AXvsN-àp-Ðn-sæÐv am{Xw.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
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